California Interagency Working Group on Indoor Air Quality
Combined Meeting Notes
June 11, (Berkeley)
September 10, (Sacramento)
Indoor Environmental Quality of Schools
Building Design and Operations
On December 10th the day of the next CIWG-IAQ meeting the DHS Indoor Air Quality Program will host an open house at our new laboratory at the Richmond Laboratory Campus. The CIWG-IAQ will be held at 10 am to noon, then we will host a lunch and give tours of our new facilities. Security at the RLC is even more strict than at our old facility, so those planning to attend need to RSVP. Plan to arrive early (10-15 min) to get through the gate and security checkpoints. RSVP to .
The 131st Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association (APHA) will be held in San Francisco on in November 15-19,. This years theme is Behavior, Lifestyle, and Social Determinants of Health. Several CIWG-IAQ members are planning presentations and/or participating on panels on IAQ-related topics at the conference. For more details, see
-- Bonnie Holmes-Gen ()
No report this period.
-- Peggy Jenkins ()
Web-site update. Visit our website! We have made some changes that have improved accessibility and function. There are also two listservs you should join if you have not already done so: one is for the Portable Classrooms Study, which is nearing completion, and the other is for our AB 1173 report to the Legislature on indoor air quality, which is just getting underway.
Portable Classrooms Study Report Approved by Board: The California Air Resources Board (ARB) approved the joint ARB-DHS report to the Legislature on the California Portable Classrooms Study in July. This is the first large, comprehensive study on environmental quality in classrooms in California. The study found that both portable and traditional classrooms had a variety of environmental problems including inadequate ventilation, elevated formaldehyde levels, excessive noise, multiple pesticides and other contaminants in floor dust, and moisture and mold problems. A small percentage of the classrooms had severe problems. The report recommends a number of solutions to these problems, including compliance with health and safety regulations, self-inspections, improved training for school maintenance staff, stable funding for school operation and maintenance, and others. The draft report and staff presentation.
Workgroup for Interagency School Health (WISH) Focuses on Environment: Staff presented key results and recommendations from the California Portable Classrooms Study. Attendees were interested in the findings of the study, and like many, were not aware of the extent of some problems such as excessive noise and inadequate lighting.
Briefing Teachers Union on the Portable Classrooms Study : In conjunction with IWMB, staff met with and briefed a staff person of the California Federation of Teachers (CFT) on the results and recommendations of the California Portable Classrooms Study (PCS). CFT is the second largest union for school employees in California, representing over 120,000 teachers and classified employees; the California Teachers Association (CTA) is the largest such union. The Report to the Legislature on the PCS includes as its first recommendation that schools comply with existing worker health and safety regulations for providing adequate building ventilation and preventing moisture intrusion. The CFT staff person was interested in the findings of the report, and expressed interest in working with the State to include the topic of indoor environmental quality in their newsletters and training programs. b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal">
Relocatables Working Group Comments : Staff reviewed and commented on a White Paper entitled Improving Learning Environments in Californias Portable Classrooms, prepared by the Relocatables Working Group (RWG), a subgroup of the Sustainable Building Task Force, and also attended the recent meetings of the group.
Workshop on Providing Good Acoustics in the Classroom: Staff participated in a workshop on acoustics in the classroom, sponsored by the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS). The workshop provided background on the development of the national industry standard for designing classrooms with good acoustical properties. The results of the California Portable Classrooms Study (PCS) by the ARB and California Department of Health Services (CDHS) confirmed that excessive noise from ventilation systems often lead teachers to shut off the systems, especially in portable classrooms. Some key recommendations in the Report to the Legislature on the PCS were to achieve an interim noise standard of no more than 45 decibels from the ventilation system, and to convene a task force to assess the need for the more stringent level of 35 decibels in the classroom, the new industry standard level. The workshop was well attended by school architects, acoustics experts, and school facility managers.
Exposure Estimates For Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Staff contributed to the ARB Technical Support Document for the Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant, Part A. Staff developed exposure estimates for low, medium, and high exposure to ETS in California, using data from an ARB outdoor monitoring study, data from the literature, and different sets of assumptions. Preliminary results indicate non-smoking individuals who live in non-smoking homes and have only brief encounters with ETS have low 24-hour time-integrated exposures to nicotine of 1 g-hr/m3 or less. A child living in a home with smokers and traveling in vehicles with smokers could have a 24-hour time-integrated exposure of approximately 80 g-hr/m3 of nicotine. Such exposures are of concern for young children who may be accompanying a smoking parent or caretaker for most of the day. Staff concluded exposures are highest when smoking occurs in the home. However, for those in non-smoking homes, outdoor smoking contributes most to their exposure. When completed, the draft report will undergo review ARBs Scientific Review Panel and be released for public review as well.
Expert Review off Draft Report for PM Exposure Study: ARB convened an expert review panel comment on a preliminary draft report on the ARB-USEPA funded study of PM exposure. Harvard University is conducting this study, which includes measurements of real-time and integrated PM2.5 and its components for indoor, outdoor, and personal exposures of healthy subjects in the Los Angeles region. The study objectives include quantifying the relationships among outdoor, indoor, and personal PM and its components, and the effects of building characteristics and human activities. This study is part of a series of multi-day, multi-season panel studies on healthy and sensitive subjects in Los Angeles, Boston, Atlanta, Seattle, and Raleigh. The contractor will conduct additional analyses, revise the draft final report, and submit it to ARB and its Research Screening Committee for approval in late.
Contract for refinement of nitrogen dioxide monitors is completed. Portable, real-time nitrogen dioxide monitors based on an electrochemical sensor were developed and improved under contract with Battelle. Under this contract, the investigators modified some of the monitor electronics to make them more sensitive and simplify data reduction. Investigators also developed some simple software to streamline data reduction. ARB has five monitors that were built under this contract. Data indicate that the monitors track results from a reference NOx monitor and are sensitive at 15 ppb. During a field test, nitrogen dioxide levels near an operating gas stove and range reached 800 ppb and higher. (California has a 1-hour NO2 standard of 250 ppb).
Report to the Legislature on indoor air quality, as required by AB 1173. ARB held a public workshop on April 4, , which was attended by 35 people, primarily industry representatives. Staff presented the outline for the report, then received comments from attendees. Comments covered a broad range of categories from biological pollutants, costs of adverse indoor air quality, prioritization of pollutants, report timeline, and government regulations. Staff are conducting an extensive literature review of indoor air quality articles published since.
World Asthma Day: Indoor Program staff sponsored an information booth on asthma on World Asthma Day, May 6, in the main lobby of the Cal-EPA headquarters building The booth provided fact sheets and brochures on a range of asthma-related topics, and included the showing of a short video, Health at Home Controlling Asthma from the US EPA. In addition to visitors to the booth, many emails requesting information were received from employees who were located outside of the Sacramento area. A list of websites with asthma information is available on request.
-- Tony Hesch ()
CDE-SFPD Relocation to new East End Building. We have just completed our relocation to out new building. Please note that all of our contact information has remained the same except our mailing address.
Sacramento CA 94244-2720
Portable Classroom Study. The CDE, SFPD provided comments for the soon to be released Portable Classroom IAQ study. This study provides a significant amount of data that should be very useful for future school planning. I look forward to its release and of course the anticipated public reaction and questions. I anticipate the study information will be outline in the DHS and/or the ARB report. I was surprised at the levels of pesticides found in virtually all of the classrooms. We are concerned that the items that are the easiest to fix are the same ones that will be taking the biggest budget hits when the new state budget is released.
State Budget Impacts on Schools. The state budget crisis is having its negative effect on school. The budget cuts will and to a large extent already has reduced staffing in both maintenance and custodial staffing. Many districts are not filling any vacancies that develop in their M and O staff, subject to seeing an actual budget. If the past budget hardship years are any indication we can expect that the reduction in staffing of maintenance and custodial staff will be the first areas to be eliminated. The significance to us who monitor the IAQ is schools is that the first line workers who contribute the most to better IAQ by maintaining HVAC, health and even safety issues in schools are being reduced. Differed maintenance funding is being targeted both at the state level and at most local level budget planning. This comes at a time when more and more required IAQ reporting and monitoring is required. We should expect the school maintenance budgets to be bad this year and get worse next year.
-- Sandra McNeel ()
Michael Lipsett, MD joins EHIB. The Environmental Health Investigations Branch is pleased to announce that Dr. Michael Lipsett, previously with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) Air Toxics group, has joined DHS to lead our Exposure Assessment Section. Dr. Lipsett brings a wealth of experience and knowledge of air quality topics from his many years of service with both the Department of Health Services and the California Environmental Protection Agency. Dr. Lipsetts work includes studies of criteria air pollutants and their respiratory effects, especially asthma.
Asthma. The first issue of California Asthma Facts Newsletter, an electronic source of asthma information from the Department of Health Services, was published in May. This issue focusing on asthma hospitalization rates by county is available at .
A 76% increase in prevalence of asthma in California adults between and was documented in a fact sheet using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (a telephone survey that annually interviews several thousand Californians about health topics). This fact sheet is available at .
Toxic Mold Protection Act (SB 732). SB 732 requires DHS to provide a report to the California Legislature describing the implementation status of the bills requirements. This report is in final draft and is undergoing administrative review. When it is approved for public release it will be added to the DHS Indoor Air Quality in the Mold section.
California Environmental Health Tracking Program (SB 702). The expert working group that was called as a result of SB 702 is finalizing their report detailing recommendations for ongoing systematic collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about environmental hazards, exposure to environmental hazards, and health effects potentially related to exposure to environmental hazards. The report is expected to be available in early October for public comment, and will be published on the California Environmental Health Tracking Program website, www.catracking.com.
April 11 Sandy McNeel delivered a presentation, Whats making us sick? A look at Indoor Molds in California at the California Academy of Family Physicians Annual Scientific Assembly in Los Angeles.
In May Sandy McNeel presented information on health effects of indoor mold exposure at an all-day mold training for Los Angeles County Environmental Health inspectors.
July 2-3, Sandy McNeel presented Indoor Mold Health Effects: Are your patients at risk? at Grand Rounds for hospital staff in the Humboldt and Del Norte County region.
-- Jed Waldman ()
Relocation to Richmond. With a mixture of regret and excited anticipation, the DHS-IAQS moved to the new Richmond Laboratory Campus in early September. On the downside, we are no longer walking distance from UC Berkeley campus, BART, and dozens of restaurants and services, and many staff who had offices now are in cubicles. But, on the brighter side, we have much larger, better functioning laboratories, more office space, and, for some, an easier commute. Even those of us who bicycle to work have found a lovely bayside bicycle path from Berkeley to Richmond. See ANNOUNCEMENTS regarding our Open House on December 10th.
Building Materials Emissions Study. The Study final report was approved by a vote of the Integrated Waste Board at their June 17th meeting. The report is available online at: Although IWMB funding has ended, limited additional material testing is continuing with in-house resources. Discussions have begun regarding a follow-up study on tire-derived rubber flooring, possibly funded by CIWMB.
IAQ Study of East End Buildings. A 12-month study was funded by U.S.EPA to measure VOC concentrations, as well as ventilation, at the 5 buildings of the East End Complex. The objective is to acquire more complete information on how selection of low-emitting building materials affect the indoor air quality of the built environment during initial occupancy and during the first year of occupancy.
Dialog with Carpet Industry. To forward a dialog on material testing among State and industry stakeholders, representatives of the carpet industry met with DHS and IWMB staff at the DHS Laboratory in Berkeley on August 6,. The informal meeting was set up to discuss findings of the recently-released Building Material Emissions Study and the States Section 01350 emissions testing specification. Among manufacturers of building materials, the carpet industry is likely the most sophisticated with respect to VOC emission testing. The Carpet & Rug Institute (CRI) has developed a set of programs for testing and labeling carpets, adhesives and cushion materials. The CRIs Green Label criteria are based on maximum emission factors (mg/m ∙hr) for formaldehyde, styrene, 4-Phenylcyclohexene (4-PC), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). CRI has expressed concern about the California Specification 01350, because the two programs have differences in methodologies and criteria. Information on CRI is available on-line at
BASE Study. We are continuing to collaborate with the LBNL-IED group to link airborne moisture-indicating microorganisms (AMIMOs) with symptoms and descriptive evidence of microbial contamination. A joint report was issued by LBNL (Report 53908). Derek Shendell (Dr. Shendell, as of August) presented on BASE research at the Sarasota Springs Bioaerosol Conference in September. An additional presentation on BASE results is scheduled for the American Public Health Association (APHA) conference in SF in mid-November. Janet Macher et al. were invited to expand their Indoor Air paper for a special issue of the journal INDOOR AIR.
ETools on Legionnaires Disease. Janet Macher (with Rick Danielson of BioVir Laboratories) has been providing technical assistance to the U.S. OSHA on their on-line eTools resource relating to Legionnaires Disease. eTools are "stand-alone," interactive, Web-based training tools on occupational safety and health topics. They are highly illustrated and utilize graphical menus. Some also use expert system modules, which enable the user to answer questions, and receive reliable advice on how OSHA regulations apply to their work site. The Legionnaires Disease eTools is designed to assist industrial hygienists in the assessment of worksites for potential Legionnaires' disease and provides information on disease recognition, investigation procedures to identify probable water sources, and control strategies. Refer to .
Portable Classroom Study. See ARB notes.
-- Liz Katz ()
Substitute Drycleaning Solvent -- Evidence of Uterine Cancer. D5, aka Green EarthI (Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) has been promoted as a substitute for perchloroethylene, and some Air Districts have been offering financial incentives to drycleaners who switch to it. HESIS toxicologists evaluated preliminary data submitted by Dow Corning Corporation under the TSCA 8(e) Notification of Substantial Risk, and concluded that available evidence (animal studies, biologic plausibility, and a similar effect from D4, a closely related siloxane) points to D5 as a cause of uterine cancer.
-- Joanne Wellman-Benson ()
No report this period
--Bob Nakamura ()
IAQ Advisory Committee. The Division is continuing to review IAQ issues raised during the two advisory meetings involving enforcement of the regulations that apply to indoor air quality situations, especially Section 5142. The second meeting was held on March 6,. Attendees discussed the current proposal for the use of DCV, modified since the first meeting, that the CEC submitted for rulemaking during the summer. Attendees also discussed changing Section 5142 to address problems in identifying the entity that can make changes to a HVAC system in a workplace. Another meeting will be held later this year.
Airborne Contaminants: 8CCR 5155. The Division is continuing to review Threshold Limit Value changes proposed by the ACGIH. The first meeting of the advisory committee was on May 4, . The most recent meeting was held on June 6th and another meeting is scheduled for September 12th. The Division coordinator is Bruce Wallace who can be reached at .
Laboratory Fume Hoods: 8CCR 5154.1. The Division has convened five advisory committee meetings to evaluate two different petitions requesting the Standards Board to reduce ventilation rate requirements and establish a performance standard in place of the existing regulation that relies on face velocity measurements. A draft proposal was discussed by the Standards Board at their public hearing on May 22nd. The Board requested that the Division convene another advisory meeting. This is scheduled for September 17th in Oakland. The Division coordinator is Bruce Wallace who can be reached at .
Heat Stress Standard. The Division has held three advisory committee meetings to review the need and issues involved in proposing a standard for heat stress. The last meeting was on February 15, in Oakland. A draft proposal was reviewed at the meeting, and revisions will be forthcoming based on the outcome of the meeting.
-- Obed Odoemelam ()
AB 1173 Report Planning. The Commission staff attended the April 4 ARB public workshop on the requirement of AB1173 for a report on indoor air quality. The staff noted to ARB that most requests by the Legislature for specific reports are driven by new concerns about the environmental problem at issue. We recommended that the report be prepared to reflect the history of the concern over indoor air quality to better inform the legislature of the main reasons for the present heightened concern. We also noted that the Legislature had required the Commission through AB4655 in to prepare a similar report to address the concern over the impacts of the Commission's energy conservation standards on indoor air quality. We published the related report in December. Staff further recommended that the new ARB report be prepared to allow for specific recommendations on the problem.
Research Funding. The Commission staff also completed the last phase of its review of the research proposals submitted for the development and commercialization of a low-cost, easy-to-use monitors for indoor and outdoor air quality.
-- Mike Apte ()
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment / Indoor Air Risk Assessment Group
-- Richard Lam ()
Environmental Protection Indicators for California (EPIC). OEHHA is the lead agency for the EPIC Project, which is a collaborative effort of Cal/EPA, the California Resources Agency, the California Department of Health Services and a variety of stakeholders. The Project is responsible for establishing and maintaining environmental indicators to characterize the state of California's environment.
Environmental indicators present scientifically-based information on the status of, and trends in, environmental conditions over time. These indicators are intended to assist environmental programs in evaluating the outcomes of their efforts and in identifying areas that require more attention. In addition, the indicators serve as a useful tool in communicating environmental information. Guidelines and criteria for identifying and selecting indicators and an initial set of indicators for environmental issues that are important for California to track are presented in an April report: Environmental Protection Indicators for California. The EPIC report and a synthesis document can be downloaded from The report discusses more than 80 environmental indicators reflecting the status of, and trends in air quality, water, land, waste and materials management, pesticides, transboundary issues (including global climate change and California-Baja California border issues), human and ecosystem health.
The EPIC Project plans to continually evaluate, improve and expand this initial set of indicators to ensure that they provide meaningful information about key environmental issues and contribute to the decision-making processes in environmental programs. Chapter 4 of the EPIC Report discusses ways by which the Project intends to improve the indicators ().
OEHHA welcomes input from all interested parties throughout this process. We are seeking public comment on various environmental indicators including that for indoor air quality. More information available at:
Chronic Toxicity Silica (Crystalline, Respirable). OEHHA has released a draft document, Chronic Toxicity Summary for Silica (Crystalline, Respirable) to solicit public comment. This draft document has been developed by OEHHA for use in implementing the Air Toxics Hot Spots Program (Health and Safety Code Section 44300 et seq.). The present document presents a toxicity summary and chronic REL for crystalline silica, particularly when this material is composed of particles of respirable size (≤10 m). People are exposed to crystalline silica inside building as it is used in construction materials. OEHHA is seeking comments on the Chronic Toxicity Summary for Silica (Crystalline, Respirable), including its clarity, and the appropriateness of the methodology and data on which the REL derivation is based. Following this public comment period, the document and any comments received, along with OEHHA's response to these comments, will undergo review by the state's Scientific Review Panel on Toxic Air Contaminants. The Chronic Toxicity Summary for Silica is available on the OEHHA Home Page at
Request for a Safe Use Determination for Crystalline Silica in Interior Latex Paints. OEHHA is the lead agency for the implementation of the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of (Proposition 65). Crystalline silica (airborne particles of respirable size) has been listed as a substance known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. OEHHA has received a request from the California Paint Council on behalf of the National Paint and Coatings Association (NPCA) that OEHHA grant a safe use determination for the use of interior latex paints used to cover or decorate the interior of buildings and the potential exposure to airborne particles of crystalline silica of respirable size that may result during the course of painting activities (e.g., painting and sanding). The request is made pursuant to Section 12204 (formerly Section 12104) of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations (22 CCR). In accordance with the process set forth in Section 12204(f) of 22 CCR, a public hearing was convened on April 28, to solicit public comment. A decision on this request will be made later.
Proposition 65 Intent to List.
a. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). On April 11, OEHHA published a notice in the California Regulatory Notice Register (Register 03, No. 15-Z) announcing its intent to list di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) under Proposition 65 in accordance with the regulatory criteria in Sections 12306 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations. The public comment period has been extended to June 11,. DEHP is used in numerous products used indoors and is of special concern in children.
b. Catechol. OEHHA intends to list catechol as known to the State to cause cancer, pursuant to this administrative mechanism as provided in Health and Safety Code Section 25249.8(b) and 22 CCR, Section 12306. Anyone objecting to the listing of catechol as causing cancer on the basis that there is no substantial evidence that the criteria for sufficiency of evidence as causing cancer specified in 22 CCR, Section 12306 have been satisfied should provide written comments by Monday, June 16,. Information can be obtained from the OEHHA Web site at: . Catechol is found in some products used indoors such as insecticides, perfumes, dyestuffs, inks, and photography.
East Bay Childrens Respiratory Health Study. Two manuscripts are prepared for publications: one on the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study and the second on the statewide assessment of school proximity to busy roads.
Results of the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study were presented at a poster discussion session of the International Conference of the American Thoracic Society in Seattle, WA, May 16-21,. Abstract: JJ Kim, S Smorodinsky et al. "Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Children's Respiratory Health." Am J Respir Crit Care Med. April; 167(7):A34.
Results of the second study were presented at the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology meeting. The abstract of the presentation is provided below.
Proximity of California public schools to busy roads
Rochelle Green1, Svetlana Smorodinsky1, Bob McLaughlin2 and Janice Kim1. 1Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Cal EPA. 2Environmental Health Investigations Branch, CDHS
Residential proximity to busy roadways has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Since children spend so much of their time at school, school location may be an important determinant of exposure to traffic-related pollutants. There are over 8,000 public schools in California, but to date no one has assessed the spatial distribution of schools in relation to busy roads and freeways. The goal of this study was to examine the number and demographic profile of public schools in California by proximity to major roadways. We obtained statewide information on public schools from the California Department of Education database and selected all active public schools grades K 12, excluding alternative and special education. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS) we were able to geocode 7,460 of 7,515 eligible schools based on school address. We determined distances to nearby roads and average annual daily traffic counts using a statewide road network from the California Department of Transportation and a GIS. The Department of Transportation does not collect traffic flow data on minor residential and rural streets. For each school, we calculated exposure to nearby traffic as the maximum daily traffic count for all road segments with traffic flow data within 150 meters of the school. High exposure to nearby traffic was defined as 50,000 or more vehicles per day on any road segment within 150 meters of the school; medium exposure was 25,000 to 49,999 vehicles; low exposure was less than 25,000 vehicles within 150 meters; and very low exposure was defined as all street segments with traffic flow data more than 150 meters from the school. Statewide, 173 schools (2.3%) with a total enrollment of 150,323 had high exposure to nearby traffic, 536 (7.2%) had medium exposure, 4484 (60.1%) had low exposure, and 2267 (30.4%) had very low exposure. The median percentage of children on CalWorks (aid for families and welfare-to-work program) increased steadily from 8.9% in schools with very low exposure to 15.5% in schools with high exposure. Similarly, the median percentage of children enrolled in free or reduced meal programs increased from 40.7% in the group with very low exposure to 60.5% in the highest exposure group. Race/ethnicity was also related to traffic exposure. The percentage of non-white students was highest at the schools near roads with the highest traffic counts (84%) and lowest in the schools with very low exposure (54.8%). The percentage of Hispanic children at the schools with high traffic exposure was twice as high as that at schools with very low exposure. In summary, a substantial number of children in California attend schools that are close to major roads with very high traffic counts, and a disproportionate number of those students are economically disadvantaged and minority. Future exposure monitoring and health studies should target children from those highly exposed schools.
-- Andrea Hricko ()
Health Study Video. The Centers
have produced a new documentary video on the results of the Children's Health
Study entitled: "A Breath of Air: What Pollution is Doing to Our
Children." To obtain ordering information, please send an email to
Andrea Hricko (Executive Producer) at: .
The cost is $8.00.
New Studies. Several new studies by Center investigators relate to the indoor environment. See "Asthma risk rises with exposure to chemicals, pollutants in infancy," in the HSC Weekly published by USC. (When you get there, type in Gilliland for the May 23 article). When you do this search, you will find other articles on Center research (e.g., maternal smoking during pregnancy, etc.).
--Wayne Ott ()
ETS and IAQ modeling. A paper by Wayne Ott, Neil Klepeis, and Paul Switzer on compartmental indoor models was accepted for publication in June-July in the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. The paper is entitled, Analytical Solutions to Compartmental Indoor Air Quality Models with Application to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Concentrations Measured in a House, and it derives analytical solutions to the 1- and 2-compartment models for several important indoor source emission time functions. The paper includes analytical solutions for the impulse, step (Heaviside), and rectangular source emission time functions. The model uses Laplace transform methods to solve the mass balance equations for two interconnected compartments, obtaining analytical expressions that can be applied without the need for a computer. The experiments in the paper showed good agreement between the concentration time series solutions predicted by the model and continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particles (RSP), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH) in a 672-square foot home in Menlo Park, CA. The experimental data also showed that the door and window positions in each room of the home had considerable effect on the pollutant concentrations measured in the home. Because of the small volumes and low air exchange rates of most homes, pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoking in a home can be very high and can persist at measurable levels indoors for many hours.
Carbon Monoxide Roadway Exposures. A paper by Peter Flachsbart, Wayne Ott, and Paul Switzer was accepted for presentation at this year's Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association in June in San Diego, CA. The paper is entitled Long-Term Trends in Exposure to Carbon Monoxide on a California Arterial Highway, and it uses exposure measurements made on a California arterial highway in -81, -92, and . A published emissions model developed at Stanford for this roadway was combined with statistical rollback theory to predict both the mean and the variance of the frequency distribution of exposures for each of these year-long experimental exposure studies. The mean net CO exposure (1.7 ppm) for was 34.5% of the corresponding value (4.8 ppm) for -92 and was 17.5% of that (9.7 ppm) for -81, showing an 82.5% decline in highway exposures over 20 years. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that the coefficient of variation of the distribution of trip means over the entire year was the same each year, even though the measurement field studies were made approximately 10 years apart. The findings also support the hypothesis that the expected value of the distribution of exposures was proportional to the average annual roadway emissions, as predicted by the emissions model. The successful performance of the statistical model suggests that a similar exposure model can be used to make long-term predictions of the frequency distribution of exposures for other pollutants in traffic on roadways.
No report this period
-- Debbie Decker ()
Health & safety program staff for 9 UC campuses and 3 national labs (LBNL, LLNL and LANL) within the University of California collaborate as part of the UC Industrial Hygiene and Safety Committee. The IAQ Work Group of the Committee has updating a document, Indoor Air Quality Tools: Education, Prevention, and Investigation, last revised in. This earlier draft is still posted on-line (look for it at ), though the IAQ-WG is planning to release their revision in the next week(s). Check at the UCDavis web site, under Documents.
-- Barbara Spark ()
-- Bill Jones ()
-- Shelly Rosenblum
New HQ Division Director: Tom Kelly is the new Director of the Indoor Environments Division in OAR/ORIA. Hes served EPA in a variety of executive positions since, including Director of the Office of Regulatory Management and Information and, most recently, as EPAs Small Business Advocacy Chair.
The 4th Annual Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools National Symposium will be held on October 26-28, in Washington DC. Unexpectedly, registration filled up (500 people) two weeks before the application deadline, indicating the great national interest in the program. Materials from the Symposium will be posted one the web page . Materials from last years Symposium remain posted at that site.
Shelly Rosenblum receives award: Shelly Rosenblum was surprised to receive the HQ / Indoor Environments Division Director's Award this year at the IED National Strategy Meeting in Washington, DC in March. The award reads, "Shelly continues to demonstrate outstanding leadership and serves as a tireless champion for implementing the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program. He has constructed an exemplary program including training, one-on-one assistance, and recognition for schools. Shelly and his colleagues in Region 9 have been innovators in actively demonstrating how to forge collaborative relationships, resulting in a program that can serve as a national model."
California legislative resolution endorsing IAQ Tools for Schools - Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 75---Relative to Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program," - introduced by Majority Leader Wilma Chan, was accepted on May 5, with 68 coauthors, and chaptered on June 24. Chan's office distributed IAQ Tools for Schools "Kits" and supporting materials to every member of the legislature. The ACR 75 text recognizes the EPA program as helping schools and school districts prevent, identify, and remedy indoor air problems, often by using commonsense activities at minimal or no cost... The Legislature of the State of California commends each agency, organization, and school district working to implement the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program in California Schools, and encourages California school districts to implement the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program for the benefit of asthmatic children and for the health, well-being, learning, and productivity of the entire school population. The full text can be viewed at:
Memorandum of Understanding with the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA). An MOU outlining joint activities to raise awareness of IAQ Tools for Schools and encourage its implementation has been signed by Wayne Nastri, EPA Region 9 Regional Administrator, and Bob Wells, Executive Director of ACSA. ACSA is a 16,000 member organization formed out of the consolidation of seven pre-existing associations of school decision-makers, such as District and County Superintendents, School Principals, Personnel and Curriculum Development. This EPA/ACSA new partnership illustrates a growing understanding that at this time of budget crisis, the Tools for Schools program is needed now, more than ever.
Student-led IAQ Tools for Schools Project: Shelly Rosenblum has developed a template for student-led Tools for Schools implementations, to be used by Middle and HS students wishing to take on Tools for Schools as a semester project. This approach to IAQ Tools for Schools holds exceptional promise, given its appeal to teachers and school principals. The Environmental Club at Northgate High School in Walnut Creek is piloting this activity. With mentoring by Shelly Rosenblum, the Club made a presentation on the Program to teachers at a faculty meeting; distributed checklists; collected and plotted results on a floor plan; and participated in a walk-through with Shelly and district HVAC staff. A similar project is underway in Visalia USD. Boilerplate for this project is available to all interested.
IAQ Tools for Schools "Class Project" - Weve relaunched the USEPA Region 9 CLASS (CLean Air for SchoolS) Project, in which EPA staff members mentor (hand-hold) their childs or a neighborhood school through the process of implementing the IAQ Tools for Schools program.. The project is being sponsored by our Regional Administrator, Wayne Nastri. We feel that its more important than ever that schools be coached to understand the simple steps which can be taken in every classroom, now that already Spartan school custodial and maintenance budgets have been further cut due to the California budget crisis. Weve created a number of step-by-step guidance for this project, which we would be delighted to share with IWG members whod like to participate in this process.
IAQ Tools for Schools / Risk Communication & Public Involvement: Alvin Chun and Shelly Rosenblum provided a half-day workshop for schools, "Working With The Community: How to build trust & credibility and how to keep it" in San Ramon June 18. The workshop has been modeled on the 3-day Risk Communication & Public Involvement Workshop that Arnold Den and Alvin Chun have been teaching for many years, but tailored to better fit school officials schedules and concerns. As a result of this workshop, the Moraga School District became interested in IAQ Tools for Schools. Shelly will be providing training for them in November. The California Association of School Business Officials (CASBO), in keeping with the MOU we've recently established with them, expects to co-sponsor future workshops.
IAQ Tools for Schools Training and Outreach - Shelly Rosenblum remains much in demand to provide Tools for Schools training, including presentations at the CASH and CASBO annual meetings. He provided a special half-day workshop on April 8 in conjunction with the "Healthy Indoor Environments " conference in Anaheim.. Thanks to collaboration with ASCIP, the largest nonprofit school insurer in California, the workshop attracted the largest percentage of school managers and administrators (as opposed to maintenance technicians) ever to attend one of our trainings. The workshop included a segment on building trust within the school community, which clearly was a big draw.
New IAQ Design Tools for Schools. The U.S. EPA announced the launch of their new web-based resource ( The web site contains recommendations and tools to help communities and design professionals integrate good indoor air quality practices into the design, construction, renovation, and operation and maintenance of K-12 school facilities. Practical, cost-effective actions ranging from walk-off entry mats to advanced ventilation systems can reduce contaminants in schools and help protect the health of children and staff..
IAQ Tools for Schools - Documents
Environmental Hazards in Preschools - Barbara Spark discussed IAQ Tools for Schools and the relevance of its underlying principles to the child care setting at an all-day workshop presented by "Parents for a Safer Environment," in Lafayette, California, May 17,. The approximately 65 attendees included Preschool directors and staff, Contra Costa County agencies, nurses and staff of medical providers and programs (including asthma programs), and parents of children under five. Many in the audience were learning for the first time that we spend about 90% of our time indoors, that indoor air quality is very important to health (including asthma), and that everyone should understand how to avoid IAQ problems in "the built environment."
Antimicrobial presentations at CIAQ - Two presentations on anti-microbial agents (including agents use in HVAC), were featured at the April meeting of the Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ). Slides and minutes are posted at . The next CIAQ meeting will take place Wednesday, October 22nd in Washington, DC.
Partnership for Clean Indoor Air grants - EPA is currently requesting proposals for Partnership for Clean Indoor Air Pilot Projects. The purpose of these grants is to support demonstrably effective pilot projects that increase the use of affordable, reliable, clean, efficient, and safe home cooking and heating practices in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and reduce peoples exposure to indoor air pollution from home cooking and heating practices. The Request for Proposals (RFP) is available at The Concept Proposal Form is due by November 5,.
Region 9 IAQ Grants - Following the protracted process of the Indoor Environments Teams first competitive grants process for implementation of the IAQ Tools for Schools program and asthma management education in schools, we awarded nine cooperative agreements, six of which are for work on in California. Awards for one or two-year projects in California were given to American Lung Association affiliates in the East Bay; and LA, San Diego/Imperial, and Santa Clara/San Benito counties. Two school districts received grants: the Los Angeles Unified School District Nursing Services, and San Francisco USD School Health Programs Department. We had previously awarded a cooperative agreement for technical support for TfS implementation at the entire Fresno USD, to the University of Tulsa Indoor Air Program.
Ad Council/EPA Childhood Asthma Media Campaign - The second installment of the national asthma awareness (Goldfish) campaign was launched in June, with the release of a Video News Release (VNR) featuring former EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman. Since the launch of this campaign in, weve received more than $100 million dollars in donated media. The campaign targets high population inner-city markets, and the call to action is to learn more about preventing attacks and avoiding emergency room visits. A hotline, 1-800-NO-ATTACKS, and Web Site, shown at the end of the PSAs, will distribute environmental asthma trigger information. The TV Public Service Announcement (PSA) can be viewed at . The second wave of the campaign also includes print advertising (newspaper, billboard, bus shelter, movie slides, posters) that begin to heighten awareness about potential hidden asthma triggers in a home (e.g. dust mites, mold, pets, secondhand smoke, cockroaches). Local stakeholders can encourage their local media outlets to run this campaign. Kristy Miller from HQ provided a half-day workshop at our office for interested stakeholders, from state, local and NGO asthma and health programs.
Alameda County asthma in schools initiative - The RAMP (Regional Asthma Management and Prevention Initiative) Schools Committee has initiated a collaboration between the Alameda County Superintendent of Schools, Sheila Jordan; Alameda County Director of Public Health, Arnold Perkins; and Berkeley Director of Public Health, Poki Namkung, with involvement by the American Lung Association of the East Bay, Ethic Health Institute, and EPA Region 9, to create a pilot program encouraging school officials to adopt asthma-friendly school policies, including implementation of IAQ Tools for Schools. Shelly Rosenblum and Barbara Spark participate in the RAMP schools committee and have already made two presentations on Tools for Schools at the County Office of Education. We expect our Regional office to provide multi-faceted support for this project. The Alameda County project is intended as a model for other counties.
Upcoming meetings of the CIWG-IAQ are scheduled as follows:
December 10, DHS Richmond Laboratory Campus
March 11, CalEPA Building, 10th & I St., Sacramento
June 9, DHS Richmond Laboratory Campus
September 15, CalEPA Building, 10th & I St., Sacramento
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